Hot line +99871 235 43 37
+99895 198 51 98
Samarkand - The capital of the empire of Tamerlane
In the southeast of Uzbekistan, in the picturesque valley of the Zerafshan River, surrounded by the Pamir-Alai Mountains, is the city of Samarkand.
Samarkand is an amazing city. Whatever epithets philosophers and poets could think of for him - the Mirror of the World, the Garden of the Soul, the Pearl of the East, the Face of the Earth - it is perhaps impossible to express all its beauty and richness in words. You can only enjoy firsthand all of its brilliance and splendor.
For its centuries-old history, this legendary city on the Great Silk Road has experienced the times of ups and downs, was subjected to the ravages of foreign invaders, reborn again, becoming even more beautiful. Trade routes to the West - to Persia, to the East - to China and to the South - to India intertwined here and formed crossroads of the Silk Road.
Among the conquerors who entered their name in the history of the city - Alexander the Great, Genghis Khan and Amir Timur, who made Samarkand the capital of his vast empire. During the reign of Ulugbek, the grandson of Timur, Samarkand became the scientific and cultural center of the Middle East.
Today Samarkand is a place where relics of antiquity are carefully preserved. The city is inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List due to the abundance of material and spiritual values preserved here. The unique monuments of ancient architecture, the heritage of scientific and art schools, the centers of national crafts, available in the ancient city, are famous today throughout the world.
Samarkand - Photos
History of Samarkand
There are cities whose centuries-old history embodies the history of entire nations and states, reflecting the path traveled by many generations. So Samarkand is one of the most ancient cities in the world.
Like other first centers of human civilization - Babylon and Memphis, Athens and Rome, Alexandria and Byzantium - Samarkand was intended to go through many events and upheavals. The history of this city goes back thousands of years. Archaeological finds and chronicle sources reliably testify that people lived on the territory of the present city for several thousand years before our era.
Particularly advantageous geographical location, comparatively favorable climate, abundance of natural water sources, proximity of mountains, with a large number of animals for hunting, and the nearby Zarafshan River - all this became favorable conditions for the establishment of a settlement in this place. A few centuries before the beginning of our era, the fortress walls that surrounded the palaces of the rulers and temples of Samarkand were towering here. In historical events of ancient times, the earliest mention of Samarkand is the testimonies of contemporaries and participants in the conquests of Alexander the Great: in 329 BC the city was known to them as Marakanda.
Madrasah Sher-Dor, Registan Square Madrasah Ulugbek, Registan SquareMuseum Gur-Emir, Samarkand
Already in those days Samarkand was a large densely populated city, with developed crafts, trade and culture. He had an impregnable fortress and an external defensive wall 10.5 km long. With new archaeological finds, scientists managed to prove that Samarkand was founded much earlier than the Greco-Macedonian conquest, and already in the era of the Achiminids (VI-IV centuries BC) was a developed city. Therefore, the "age" of Samarkand is more than 2500 years, since the appearance of the settlement on the forest hills of Afrasiab, although in fact it is much older.
Throughout its history, the city saw on its streets semi-wild Sakas and Masagites, iron phalanxes of Greco-Macedonian troops, hordes of cruel Karakit. The city resisted the devastating invasion of the Arabs, who brought with them a new religion - Islam. The bloody hordes of Genghis Khan fell with swords and fire on the peaceful houses of Samarkand. He was also the capital of Temur's empire, stretching from the Indus River to the Bosporus Strait. After the death of this commander, power over the empire passed to his sons and grandsons. Samarkand, and its surroundings, went to Temur's grandson - Ulugbek. Ulugbek ruled the city for 40 years. He practically did not participate in the conquest campaigns. He visited other countries many times, but to study their culture, traditions and other things. He was a great scientist, astronomer and mathematician: therefore he collected many scientists from different countries for scientific research in his state.
In XIV-XV centuries the city is experiencing its golden age. Urban development reaches its apogee: the city is surrounded by powerful fortress walls, behind which are the landscaped gardens and parks. The city itself is cutting new streets paved with stone. At its various ends, blue domes of grandiose architectural ensembles rise. Most of these objects are still the main symbols of the city. And architectural monuments built during the reign of the Timurids are equal in importance to the architectural masterpieces of ancient Egypt, China, India, Greece and Rome.
Now Samarkand, like many cities in Central Asia, is divided into two parts: the old and the new city. The new part is an administrative part of the city, including the industrial, cultural and educational centers. The old part is represented by historical monuments, shops, shopping benches, and old private houses. Excursions in the majority pass along the old part of Samarkand. The population of the city is 500 thousand people, but this is a multinational city represented by more than 100 nationalities. Also, Samarkand is the second most populated city in Uzbekistan.